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Reducing Black Carbon from Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles & Engines
Nigeria is reported to be world’s largest importer of diesel generators! Hence, based on Nigeria’s commitment in reducing SLCPs from this sector, investments have been diversified into pockets of power generation using renewable energy technologies in different parts of the country especially the northern parts of Nigeria. A 50 MW solar farm in Kaduna ( by Synergent Group), 100 MW solar farm in Bauchi (Nigeria Solar Capital Project and Gigawatt Solar ), 60MW in Katsina( 30MW Nigeria-German Energy Partnership), 10MW wind-mill energy funded by the Federal Government and the 20MW solar energy plant owned by the Katsina State Government are some of the new investment to develop the sector. These projects are to address intense energy poverty in Nigeria and reduce black carbon due to use of diesel generators.
The launch of the Clean Energy Transport Scheme in major cities across Nigeria has commenced. The scheme involves the introduction of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) run vehicles and retrofitting of diesel engine to CNG. The Clean Energy transport scheme have Asiko Energy as the lead Partner in the Gas flare down programme introducing CNG to Borno State , Kaduna . Nimco and the PPMC have already started operations in Benin city of Edo State with over 50% of taxi operators converting to CNG. Tata Motors and Tower Group have delivered a new investment package to complement government's Green Entrepreneur Scheme , a scheme that empowers unemployed youths to run only CNG buses on a hire-puchase basis.
Accelerating methane reductions from oil and natural gas production
Gas flaring in Nigeria has been reduced by 6% as at the end of 2012 from 24 to 18%.The Ministry of Environment in partnership with the Ministry of Petroleum Resources, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) have in line with the CCAC oil and gas initiative formed an inter-ministerial committee to reduce SLCP emissions from the sector. Nigeria as a Lead-Partner of the Oil and Gas Initiative is at the fore of getting the private sector educated through the engagement of the Hon Minister of Environment with the CEOs of major players in the Oil and Gas sector. CDM Projects registered are geared towards methane reduction from oil and gas production. These include recovery of associated gas that would otherwise be flared at Kwale Oil-Gas processing plant, as well as recovery & marketing of gas that would otherwise be flared at the Asuokpu/ Umutu Marginal Field.
The Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB) which has just passed the second legislative reading contains gas flaring prohibition and punishment act. All companies with oil licenses must submit feasibility studies, programmes and proposals for capturing gas within 3 months of bill implementation. The PIB also has Flare-out date of 31st December 2013, with penalty twice that of international market rate.
Actions to Reduce Black Carbon from Cookstoves
Nigeria contributes about 10% of global annual deaths from smoke related illnesses due to indoor and outdoor pollution related to black carbon. The Federal Ministry of Environment through its Renewable Energy Programme has introduced the National Clean Cooking Scheme to eradicate or at least reduce to the barest minimum the dependence on fuel wood as source of cooking as over 70% of rural population in Nigeria rely on biomass for their domestic cooking needs. Retrofitting of kitchens in government boarding secondary schools, hospitals and hotels across the nation has commenced to demonstrate to high volume consumers to switch from cooking with firewoods to cleaner fuels. Pilot projects to educate and ensure availability of LPG and improved wood stoves to two states, Kwara and Akwa Ibom States have been through the 2012 budgetary allocation.
Mitigating SLCPs from Municipal Solid Waste Sector
Nigeria has attained a level of advancement using Lagos state as pilot which will be replicated to other cities in Nigeria as well as other African countries. The Federal Ministry of Environment in partnership with the Lagos state Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) have mapped out landfill/dumpsites in Lagos Olusosun(42hectares), Solous (19hectares), Ewuelepe(8hectares), Epe(80hectares). The activities take place at the various sites such as : receiving of all waste material generated in Lagos (domestic, commercial, industrial and medical wastes) constituting about 7000 tonnes of waste dumped daily on the sites.
The Lagos Waste Management Authority is central to the effort of the Federal Ministry of Environment towards reducing the SLCPs from the municipal solid waste sector. The climate change unit of LAWMA acts as the authority’s focal point regarding climate change issues and related projects such as the Epe integrated solid waste management project which includes the closure of 2 landfills and developing a landfill gas recovery and utilization facility at these sites as CDM projects. Also commissioned is the Gas to Energy project at the Olushosun landfill site. This will also be extended to other major cities in the country.