There are many cost-effective, readily available options for addressing SLCPs. Recent studies examined a range of measures targeting methane and black carbon and show that their implementation, if rapid and sustained, will bring considerable benefits. The UNEP/WMO assessment of black carbon and tropospheric ozone identified 16 measures targeted at reducing emissions of black carbon and methane to achieve near-term climate benefit as well as health and food security benefits. These measures targets 4 black carbon emitting sectors: transportation, residential, industry and agriculture and 3 methane emitting sectors: extraction and transport of fossil fuel, waste management and agriculture. The measures addresses black carbon emissions (and its co-emitted pollutants) from biomass heating and traditional cooking with solid biomass and coal, the burning of agricultural waste, high-emitting on-road and off-road diesel vehicles, brick kilns and coke ovens as well as methane emissions from coal mining, oil and gas production and transport, landfills and wastewater, livestock and rice paddies.
The selection criteria for the 16 measures from a large subset of possible option was based on the net impact that the implementation of the measures would have on global warming, and would yield air quality benefits by reducing particulate matter and/or O3 concentrations (win-win measures). Hence, measures that provide benefit for air quality but increased warming were omitted. Examples of measures include installing diesel particulate filters to trap black carbon emissions from diesel engines, accelerating transitions to cleaner fuels for household cooking, improved brick kilns that minimize black carbon and co-emissions and harnessing methane from landfills as a source of energy.
Measures to tackle the rapidly growing increase of HFCs emissions include using new technologies to avoid use of high global warming potential (GWP) HFCs in air conditioning, refrigeration, solvent, foam, aerosols and fire retardants. Commercially used examples include fibre insulation materials and architectural designs that avoid the need for air-conditioners, alternatives to high-GWP HFCs such as hydrocarbons and ammonia, and the use of low-GWP HFCs. The rapid development of national action planning can also support SLCP mitigation by enabling countries to identify achievable ‘quick-win’ benefits, and to prepare the ground for large-scale implementation of mitigation measures geared to their unique national circumstances, priorities and particular mix of SLCP sources.