Our work in the agriculture sector helps countries identify increasingly ambitious actions, policies and targets across the food system. Guided by a priority to enhance food security and livelihoods, we demonstrate solutions to reduce short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) that deliver quick benefits for the climate and air quality.

There are many practical options that improve resilience while reducing emissions in the agriculture, forest and land use and sector, and there are economic, environmental and social co-benefits that can accompany more ambitious immediate action.

- Qu Dongyu, FAO Director-General, at the CCAC 2019 High Level Assembly


Agriculture contributes around 11% of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. With land-use change, this rises to around 25%. The effects of climate change are already negatively impacting agricultural production, increasing hunger and hurting farmers.

Transforming the agriculture sector, and our global food system, to emit less and be more resilient is critical to ensuring food security and preserving the livelihoods of millions of farmers and food workers.

Top facts

The agriculture and forestry sectors* contribute around 24% of all global greenhouse gas emissions (*including land use change)
The agriculture sector is responsible for around 40% of global black carbon and anthropogenic methane emissions
Bold action to reduce short-lived climate pollutant emissions could avoid 52 million tonnes of staple crop losses annually by 2030

How we work

Our work aims to raise ambition in 2030 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to include actions to reduce agricultural SLCP emissions. To get there, we are building a group of leaders in the field and raising awareness about the actions that can be taken now.

We assist countries with tools and capacity-building to identify increasingly ambitious actions, policies and targets, while also supporting strengthened coordination at the national level. To unlock the potential for scale-up, we work to marshall evidence that enables financing for large-scale climate impact.

The CCAC’s agriculture work can assist partners to set ambitious but realistic targets for their agricultural emissions.

- Aupito William Sio, New Zealand's Minister for Pacific Peoples, at the 2019 CCAC High Level Assembly


In order to raise ambition in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) we showcase best practices to reduce agricultural methane and black carbon emissions. 

The practices we promote:

  • Enable increased productivity from livestock products while reducing methane (from enteric fermentation) per unit of product
  • Save water and reduce methane from paddy rice production
  • Reduce or capture methane as a resource from livestock manure
  • Offer alternatives to agricultural burning that will reduce black carbon emissions

In addition to helping reduce the rate of near-term warming, these practices can provide immediate benefits for public health, food security and economic development.

Many of the practices will also lead to increased agricultural productivity, and contribute to the implementation of countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). That means they are also aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and low-emissions agricultural development.

Related projects

Location of activities

  • Africa
    • Eswatini
    • Ethiopia
    • Kenya
    • Nigeria
  • Asia and the Pacific
    • Bangladesh
    • China
    • India
    • Indonesia
    • Pakistan
    • Thailand
    • Vietnam
  • Latin America and the Caribbean
    • Costa Rica
    • Panama
    • Peru
    • Uruguay

Description of activities

Workstream | Agriculture
Enteric fermentation is a natural part of the digestive process in ruminant animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalo. Microbes in the digestive tract, or rumen, decompose and ferment food,...
Ruminant production and enteric methane
Workstream | Agriculture
Poor manure management practices are common on much of the world’s farms, as farmers lack awareness about the value of livestock manure as a fertilizer and fuel. Manure is often disposed of in piles...
Manure management
Workstream | Agriculture
Paddy rice is a staple crop for much of the world’s population. It is also a key source of the greenhouse gas methane, responsible for about 40 million tonnes, or 10% of global emissions , each year...
Paddy rice production
Workstream | Agriculture
Farmers in many parts of the world set fire to cultivated fields to clear stubble, weeds and waste before sowing a new crop. While this practice may be fast and economical, it is highly unsustainable...
Open agricultural burning
Activity | Agriculture, SNAP, Waste
Eswatini | Closed
Eswatini submitted its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2016. Since 2019, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) and the NDC Partnership, through its Climate Action Enhancement...
Mbabane city. Photo: Eswatini Tourism, Wikimedia
Activity | Agriculture
Vietnam | Ongoing
Vietnam harvests approximately 7.4 million hectares of rice a year. Methane emissions from rice production account for 50% of emissions from agriculture, which in turn contributes 33% of the country’...
Vietnam_MRV_Agriculture. Photo: Quang Nguyen Vinh on Pixabay

Achievements to date

The CCAC has helped governments identify ambitious actions, policies and targets to cut short-lived climate pollutant emissions from enteric methane, rice, manure, and burning. Our work has laid the foundation for action by establishing locally appropriate, affordable and technically feasible measures. Our key achievements include:

National policy

  • At COP25 the CCAC, WRI and Oxfam launched the paper Enhancing NDCS: Opportunities in Agriculture.  It identifies actions that benefit adaptation and mitigation priorities in the agriculture sector and offers practical examples for how to include them in enhanced Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).  
  • 29 CCAC partners have included specific agriculture measures in their updated NDCs. 16 mention enteric fermentation, 15 manure management, 11 rice production, and 8 open burning.

Paddy rice

  • We funded research by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) that Vietnam is using to design, finance and implement the low-carbon rice production technique - alternate wetting and drying (AWD) - as part of its NDC.  
  • With IRRI we promoted the AWD technique in Bangladesh. By early 2020, the multi-sectoral Focal Area Network (FAN) had worked with an estimated 13,000 farmers and cut of methane emissions equivalent to approximately 19,500 tons of carbon dioxide per year through the adoption of the AWD technique. Read Bangladesh's story 


  • With FAO, World Bank and Global Environment Facility, we supported three large national livestock management programs of more than $460 million in UruguayEthiopia and Bangladesh that can reduce approximately 4 million tons of methane each year. Read Uruguay's story 
  • Together with the FAO, we strengthened Kenya's capacity to develop the Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Cattle in Kenya 1995-2017, which applied IPCC Tier 2 methods for collecting data and calculating emissions.  
  • In Vietnam, we surveyed mitigation options for livestock production and identified using biogas systems for livestock waste treatment as a priority measure for Vietnam's updated NDC.  
  • 14 countries demonstrated the potential for reducing enteric methane to stimulate immediate investments.

  • 13 countries developed baseline and mitigation assessments for enteric fermentation in the dairy and livestock sector using the Global Livestock and Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). 

Open burning


  • Projects and support in 47 countries.
  • Leveraged $461,100,000 in co-funding for SLCP mitigation in agriculture

  • Helped 4 countries include mitigation from agriculture in their NDCs.  

  • Supported 18,672 person days of training and 41 institutional strengthening activities. 
  • Supported 283 technology and practice changes that led to SLCP reductions in the four focus areas.
  • Produced over 60 knowledge resources


Catalina Etcheverry,
Programme Manager
secretariat [at] ccacoalition.org
James Morris,
Programme Management Officer
secretariat [at] ccacoalition.org

Related work

Pollutants addressed

Who's involved

Lead Partner: A Coalition partner with an active role in coordinating, monitoring and guiding the work of an initiative.

Implementer: A Coalition partner or actor receiving Coalition funds to implement an activity or initiative.

Partners (22)



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