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The Republic of Guinea is extremely vulnerable to climate change. However, the country has multiple policies and strategies in place to increase its resilience. Guinea became a partner of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) in 2014, aiming to adopt measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and to identify priority areas for near-term climate mitigation. The Republic of Guinea has participated in trainings on developing SLCP emissions inventories. Guinea received technical assistance in 2018 to develop an integrated inventory of SLCPs, greenhouse gases, and air pollutants, and the country is working on the third National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
One of the major frameworks to combat climate impacts in Guinea is the National Climate Change Strategy (SNCC), which was implemented in 2019. It aims to sustainably integrate two approaches to combatting climate change, adaptation and mitigation. The development of the strategy has been participatory and inclusive in many ways, involving all relevant stakeholders, especially the ones that are in sectors highly vulnerable to climate change.
Guinea submitted their updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2021. According to the NDCs, the country is aiming for a 20% unconditional emission reduction target by 2030, compared to the baseline, and is aiming to increase it to 49% conditionally. These targets are to be achieved through scaled-up mitigation and adaptation measures in sectors including agriculture, household energy, waste, and transportation.
The updated NDCs identify the household energy sector as a priority area for emission mitigation. Currently, about 75% of the country’s energy consumption comes from burning logs, and the NDC measures target to reduce the per capita firewood consumption to 50% by 2030. Through energy-related measures outlined in the NDCs to achieve this target, Guinea also aims to create an immediate positive impact on the condition of women and children by saving time and money on wood collection and reducing the exposure to the risk of violence against women. Additional plans are in place to provide Tier 3 and 4 improved stoves with better combustion to replace firewood, aiming to reduce exposure to toxic fumes and the frequency of respiratory disease for women and infants in the long-term.
Aligning with the CCAC’s goals, Guinea has also integrated methane into their revised NDCs. To tackle emissions from the waste sector, Guinea currently has a major project under development to collect waste from Conakry and recover as electricity by methane combustion. Once launched, this project would represent a mitigation potential of around 34 kTCO2/year by 2030 compared to the business-as-usual scenario.
Multiple quantified CO2 reduction targets are set for the household energy, transportation, waste sectors, while planning for even more ambitious targets for the second round of revisions. For example, in the second NDC submission, Guinea intends to include priority measures for the agriculture sector, such as experimenting and identifying alternative low-carbon practices for rice cultivation, livestock residue management, and savannah burning, with the overall goal of reducing methane emissions from the sector.
Another major strategy adopted by Guinea is the 2007 National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA), which identifies priority activities that need to be addressed immediately to reduce climate impacts on livelihoods and the economy. Adaptation options were identified through nationwide public consultations involving stakeholders at the grassroots level, and 25 priority projects were planned. Seven of the 25 projects were specific to the agriculture and livestock sectors and aim to improve food security and preserve the environment while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Following the NAPA, the National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP) conducted several consultation missions to Guinea, ultimately helping the country prepare a proposal for the national adaptation plan, which received financial support from the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This project has been ongoing since 2020 and aims to support the Republic of Guinea in policymaking by building climate adaptive capacity and planning.