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In Peru, more than 70 percent of cattle are in the Sierra under an extensive system of grazing of both natural pastures and cultivated pastures where the national livestock is maintained. In the system, natural grasslands that cover almost 15% of the national territory and 70% of the agricultural area predominate, however, their nutritional contribution is of low quality. As an alternative we have the cultivated pastures, mainly in the inter-Andean valleys, allowing to improve animal productivity. Cattle genetics are mainly Creole, with varying degrees of crossing with other breeds, especially Brown Swiss, due to their ability to adapt to high mountain areas. This document attempts to disseminate the recent research on methane emissions in dairy cattle from enteric fermentation carried out in the high Andean area of Peru under two prevalent feeding systems, natural and cultivated pastures, thus contrasting the environmental impact of enteric fermentation per milk unit corrected to energy for both systems.