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Mongolia is a landlocked country with hot and dry summer and cold, severe winter, and is vulnerable to climate change. Mongolia is being affected by climate change, and the average temperature has increased by about 2.1 °C over the last 60 years. It has its impact on Mongolia's ecosystems, its economy and society.
Mongolia has been developing rapidly for the last years. The consumption of HFCs has been rising with a boom in major constructions, the increasing number of automobiles, air conditioning and refrigeration servicing sector, addint to country's difficulties dealing with controlling and conducting inventory of HFCs. Mongolia is keen to collaborate with UNEP and OzonAction to do an inventory of HFCs as a first step.
Mongolia has come up with the HCFC phase out management plan (HPMP) and is being implemented since 2012. Mongolia is aiming at phasing out HCFC-22 with alternative technology featuring zero ODP, extremely low GWP alternatives and energy efficient alternatives and some other substances by 2030.
In order to achieve the accelerated phase out HCFC-22 with alternative technology featuring zero ODP, extremely low GWP alternatives, Mongolia has been making efforts to use economic instruments such as tax incentives.
In connection to these efforts the equipments contained ODS alternatives R-290 (Propane); R-32(Difluoromethane); R-152a (Difluoroethane); R-744 (Carbon dioxide) exempted from income tax of entities which has been approved by Government resolution #303 dated 23 August 2013, "List of equipments that are environmentally friendly and encourage proper use of natural resources and reduce environmental pollution and waste".
In order to integrate the climate change concern and actions into sectoral development programmes, a measures and actions that have an inter-sectoral and inter-disciplinary nature are included in recently approved sectoral development programme as following:
Mongolia prepared its first GHG inventory in 1996 for the base year 1990 under the US Country Studies Program. This inventory was updated within the Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy (ALGAS), a regional project implemented by the Asian Development Bank. As part of the enabling activities of preparation of the Mongolia’s Initial National Communication (GEF/UNEP), the GHG inventories were updated to 1998. In accordance with the preparation of Second national communication 2010, the national GHG inventories have been updated to the period 1990 – 2006. The Tier 1 methodology of the revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines was used in compiling the national GHG emissions inventory. For the agriculture sector, which requires more detailed inventory, emissions from enteric fermentation in livestock were estimated using the Tier 2 methodology. The national GHG inventory for the period 1990-2006 is planned to be made in 2013 in scope of GHG emissions mitigation, as a part of Third National Communication from the Ministry of Environment and Green Development.
For more information on GHG Inventories in Mongolia visit this site.
Coal is burned in Mongolia in the thermal power stations and it is used to produce power and heating. Mongolia has the significant reserves of coal and currently the expected reserve is estimated to be 152 billion tons. Although Ulaanbaatar city has high amount of the black carbon discharge the surrounding areas have the relatively pure air. Currently, it is necessary to determine all parameters of the black carbon and investigate comparatively the meteorological and climatic data of the region or investigate the impact of the black carbon upon the weather.
The primary source of the Ulaanbaatar air pollution is particular matters (PM). Ulaanbaatar city is located remotely from any ocean separated by the vast steppe from north to south and from east to west. Although PM of Ulaanbaatar city is 2, 5 (its content increases substantially when households light fires during the cold winter season) it increases during winter seasons even higher to more than ~150 mg/m3 (Allen, 2011).
In spite of this black carbon (BC) is not investigated well in Ulaanbaatar (Davi 2011) there is information that BC has been approximately ~25,000 mg/m3 by the average amount over four years.
Since 2012, the Ministry of Environment and Green Development of Mongolia arranged the research of PM2.5 and PM10 in four points of Ulaanbaatar city. This research is planned to be continued throughout 2013 and the first results will be introduced at the end of this year.
After almost 25 years, developed and developing countries of the world have proven that international cooperation can work as they phased out 98% of historical global production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS), including CFCs used in air-conditioners, refrigeration, foam-blowing, aerosols, etc.
In the last few years, Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer have fervently discussed whether HFCs should be controlled under the multilateral environmental agreement (MEA), given that although it has no effect on the ozone layer, its increase in production and use is basically due to the phase-out ODS.
While Parties are still deliberating the issue, Mongolia has taken a giant leap to control HFCs even without being obliged by the Montreal Protocol to do so, under the Air Law of Mongolia (2010). HFCs control was also included in the renewal of Government Resolution 104 (1999) submitted to the Cabinet and pending for approval. Currently, it is the only developing country in Asia that has put in place legal measures to control the import of HFCs.
After meeting the CFC phase-out targets in 2010, developing countries have now embarked on the new challenge of phasing out HCFCs primarily used in the air-conditioning and refrigeration, and foam sectors. However, governments and the industry are faced with a great challenge in the transition from HCFCs to alternatives – a group of chemicals called hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which have no negative effects on the ozone layer but are powerful greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, typically with global warming potential (GWPs) 1000-3000 times higher than that of CO2.
HFCs have become the major replacements for many ODS applications. Currently, the contribution of HFCs to climate change is less than 1% of all other greenhouse gases combined. However, with the current activities under HCFC Phase-out Management Plans (HPMPs) worldwide and the increasing need for substitutes in the transition process, HFCs have the potential to significantly influence climate in the coming years and even offset the climate benefits of the Montreal Protocol.
The 1997 Kyoto Protocol covers HFCs along with PFCs and SF6, but developing countries under this international agreement have no obligations to reduce GHG emissions. The Montreal Protocol currently does not include HFCs, but countries like the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Federated States of Micronesia, have presented amendment proposals to include the phase-down of this chemical under said MEA.
Since 1999, Mongolia has had an operational licensing and quota system for import and export of ozone depleting substances (ODS) including HCFCs. Mongolia has fixed an HCFC quota system and uses the issuance of licenses with the given quotas to the licensed importers as a way to monitor HCFC imports as according to 20.2 Article of Air law of Mongolia since 2010. Currently importers receive the amount that they request in their alternatives import licenses. Mongolia has also put in place the control of the import of ODS-based equipment including HCFC-based equipment and HFC.
Classified as an Article 5 country (developing country), Mongolia has committed to phase-out HCFCs following a step-wise reduction schedule. For the first stage of compliance, Mongolia has to freeze its baseline consumption by 1 January 2013 and reduce HCFC consumption by 10% reduction by 1 January 2015. Under the approved HCFC Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP) of Mongolia where UNEP OzonAction is the lead implementing agency, the country will adopt a staged approach for the HCFC phase-out. The 1st Stage for the HPMP is designed to achieve the 35% phase-out target until 2020.
Conducting Inventory of HCFCs and the survey of ODS alternatives at the national level in Mongolia will be implemented by UNEP.
The sustainable development of Mongolia faces numerous challenges and risks associated with the adverse impacts of climate change on natural ecosystems and socio-economic sectors. Mongolia also...