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Using the Norwegian Environment Agency report Climate mitigation measures and emission trajectories up to 2030 (English summary M-418/2015) and its proposed action plan for Norwegian emissions of short-lived climate forcers (English summary M-135/2014) as a basis, this report answers three questions: 1. What are the short-term climate effects of the measures in the low-carbon transition report, and which of them have the largest short-term climate benefits in addition to the long-term climate benefits described in the report? 2. What are the health effects of the measures analysed in the low-carbon transition report, and which of them yield the largest health benefits? 3. Which of the measures analysed in the action plan are still important for achieving short-term climate effects, and which are less relevant because measures analysed in the low-carbon transition report are a better option?
The Norwegian Environment Agency analysed both short-term and long-term climate effects of climate mitigation measures and emission trajectories up to 2030, and assessed which of the measures will also provide health benefits. The following measures were found to give the greatest overall benefit (‘win-win-win’ solutions): switching to electric and hydrogen vehicles (passenger cars and vans); electrification of ferries and passenger ships; reduction in passenger car traffic in the larger towns and zero growth in the rest of the country.