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Abstract - This study determined the production-based emissions, the consumption-based emissions, and the consumption-based health impact of primary carbonaceous aerosols (black carbon: BC, organic carbon: OC) in nine countries and regions in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, China, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan) in 2008. For the production-based emissions, sectoral emissions inventory of BC and OC for the year of 2008 based on the Asian international input–output tables (AIIOT) was compiled including direct emissions from households. Then, a multiregional environmental input–output analysis with the 2008 AIIOT which was originally developed by updating the table of 2000 was applied for calculating the consumption-based emissions for each country and region. For the production-based emissions, China had the highest BC and OC emissions of 4520 Gg-C in total, which accounted for 75% of the total emissions in the nine countries and regions. For consumption-based emissions, China was estimated to have had a total of 4849 Gg-C of BC and OC emissions, which accounted for 77% of the total emissions in the Asia studied. We also quantified how much countries and regions induced emissions in other countries and regions. Furthermore, taking account of the source–receptor relationships of BC and OC among the countries and regions, we converted their consumption-based emissions into the consumption-based health impact of each country and region. China showed the highest consumption-based health impact of BC and OC totaling 111 × 103 premature deaths, followed by Indonesia, Japan, Thailand and South Korea. China accounted for 87% of the sum total of the consumption-based health impacts of the countries/regions, indicating that China's contribution to consumption-based health impact in Asia was greater than its consumption-based emissions. By elucidating the health impacts that each country and region had on other countries and from which country the impacts were received, we demonstrated that the characteristics of the consumption-based health impact varied significantly by country and region. We also determined the difference in the health impacts to other countries and regions due to the domestic final demand of each country and region, and the health impact due to the domestic final demand of that country or region.
Takahashi, K., K. Nansai, S. Tohno, M. Nishizawa, J. Kurokawa, & T. Ohara (2014) Production-based emissions, consumption-based emissions and consumption-based health impacts of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosols in Asia, Atmospheric Environment (In Press).