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Air pollution is emitted by emissions from natural sources, such as volcanoes, and human emissions, such as emissions from vehicles and industries that function to meet the demands of a growing urban population that, by 2050, is estimated to exceed 52 in Colombia. million inhabitants (National Planning Department [DNP], 2014). In the country, air pollution is greater in the main cities, such as Bogotá, where the contribution of vehicles to emissions is 78% (District Department of the Environment [SDA], 2014). For its part, in Medellín, 81% of the emissions of particles come from vehicles that, added to the geographical characteristics and climate, cause critical episodes of air pollution, mainly in March and October, times of high cloudiness and transition between the dry season and the rainy season, limiting the dispersion of pollutants (Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley [AMVA], 2015). The exposure of the population to air pollution has negative effects on health, generating social and economic costs represented by diseases, restriction in the development of activities, attention by the health system and deaths. In the country, these costs are estimated at 12.3 billion pesos, equivalent to 1.5% of GDP in 2015 (DNP, 2018).
The aim of the policy is to comply with Resolution 2254/2017 for 2030 (reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in ambient air in main cities). Guidelines addressed to local environmental policies will be developed in order to promote synergies between climate change and air quality agendas.