SLCP action plan

National Action Plan on Air Pollutants

2019 - 2030

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The Maldives’ National Action Plan on Air Pollutants is an integrated approach to reducing both air pollution and climate forcers. The Maldives’ Ministry of Environment has developed, compiled and quantified for the first time, the reductions in air pollutants for measures originally developed with the aim of reducing greenhouse gases in the country. 

The 28 mitigation measures included in the plan aim to reduce emissions of air pollutants, short-lived climate pollutants, and carbon dioxide, including an estimated 60% reduction in direct fine particulate matter emissions, and 40% reduction in black carbon emissions by 2030.

All specific mitigation measures in the National Action Plan align with existing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the three major air pollution source sectors: electricity generation, transport and waste.


The mitigation measures identified in this National Action Plan are:

Renewable energy

1. Install 15MW PV systems in greater Male’ region: This referred to the Malé region solar PV programme involving installation of minimum 15 MW PV systems (11 MW for Malé and 4 MW for Hulhumalé) and implemented under a FIT-scheme.

2. Install additional 15MW PVs in the greater Male’ region.

3. PVs with net metering: Introduces solar PVs for residential applications under net metering scheme. The option assumes 1000 residential applications of 1kWp each will be implemented by 2030.

4. PVs in outer islands: Solar PV systems will be implemented in the islands to cater for 30% of the daytime peak electricity demand of the islands.

5. PVs in small islands, 100% solar: Under the SREP Investment Plan, 10 island grids are envisaged to be targeted full transformation to solar PVs with storage. For this option, this was extended to comprise totally 60 islands categorized as small islands.

6. PVs on resorts: Larger solar water heaters with electrical back-up has been identified as a replacement for electrical water heating at hotels and at resorts to reduce emissions.

7. Large solar water heaters.

8. 20MW wind power and 25MW LNG: STELCO is envisaging a wind/gas hybrid system with up to 25 MW LNG plant for base load and up to 20 MW wind power.


9. Thilafushi waste to energy: This project on establishment of a waste-to energy (WTE) plant at Thilafushi with installed capacity for electricity generation of around 4 MW is envisaged under the SREP Investment Plan.

10. Regional waste to energy projects: The projects on establishment of new regional waste facilities in Hithadhoo and Vandhoo are envisaged under the SREP Investment Plan. The two facilities are supposed to receive about 100 tonnes of waste per day and to jointly provide for 2 MW installed electricity generation capacity.

28. Stop open burning in Thilafushi: The waste generated in the region and brought to Thilafushi will be baled to prevent open burning and spontaneous combustion. This baled waste will be used in Measure 25 in order to generate energy.

Energy efficiency

11. Upgrades of system efficiencies in diesel powerhouses: The present thermal efficiencies of diesel generators at outer islands were understood to be 26% on average and distribution losses to be 20%, hence leading to overall system efficiencies of 32%. The generation efficiency can be improved by replacement of inefficient generators, careful combination of the generators during the time of the day to match the demand of the island, and better maintenance of the generators. Similarly, the distribution losses can be improved by upgrading the grids to ensure that the correct sizes of cables and transmission equipment are being used in the distribution.

12. Energy efficient air conditioning at resorts: replace conventional air conditioners used in the tourism sector with more energy efficient ones.

13. Efficient air-conditioning in households: The purpose of the project is to replace conventional air conditioners used in residential areas with more energy efficient ones.

14. Energy efficient refrigerators: For this option annual electricity demand of energy efficient refrigerators was assumed to be 0.3 MWh versus 0.86 MWh of conventional types. The entire stock in 2012 was estimated to comprise some 80,000 refrigerators of which 70% was assumed being conventional types with low energy efficiency. For the mitigation option conventional types were envisaged being replaced by energy efficient types.

15. LEDs for domestic lighting: Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFLs) are mainly used for lighting in households and businesses. CFLs have a useful lifetime of 6000 operating hours equalling 2.3 years. In this option all CFLs were envisaged being replaced with Light Emitting Diodes (LED) consuming 40% less electricity than CFLs and with lifetime equalling 10 years.

16. LED tubes for public sector: Replace conventional tubes in public service buildings with LED tubes. Replacing conventional tubes in public service buildings with LED tubes reduce energy consumed for lighting.

17. Centralized cooling systems in new buildings: Replace conventional air conditioners used in the commercial sector with more energy efficient centralized air conditioning systems. It has been shown that such systems can reduce input energy by about 38%.

18. LED tubes for street lighting: There are around 2200 such applications of Sodium Vapour Lamps for street lighting including 1500 at harbours. For this option, LED tubes were envisaged for all 2200 applications plus for new applications required as per the growth rate assumed for electricity.

19. Energy efficient water pumping: Conventional pumps are envisaged being replaced with energy efficient pumps offering efficiency gains at 60% over conventional pumps.


20. Better maintenance of motorbikes: In 2012 there were about 36,000 motor bikes on Malé and about 10,000 motor bikes on other islands. Their estimated petrol demand was around 17 million litres which may grow to 25 million litres according to growth expectation for the transport sector.

21. Bioethanol 15% blend in all gasoline: Follows the target in the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSSD) of 20% biofuel in transport in 2020. In this option we assume that 15% of the gasoline is replaced by bioethanol, in order to stay below the blend wall, the maximum amount of ethanol that can be blended given the legal and practical constraints.

22. Biodiesel 20% blend in diesel: follows the target in the National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSSD) of 20% biofuel in transport in 2020. In this option we assume that 20% of the diesel for road and sea transport is replaced by biodiesel.

23. Revise and set vehicle emission standards: Where all vehicles meet the equivalent of the Euro IV emission standards by 2030, and 2. Where all vehicles meet the equivalent of Euro VI emission standards by 2030.

24. Develop marine engine emission standards.

25. Set fuel quality standards.

Refrigerating and cooling

26. Sensitizing fisheries sector on HFC phase-down and Kigali Amendment: Prepare the fisheries sector for the introduction and diffusion of HFC alternatives.

27. Sensitizing tourism sector on HFC phase-down and Kigali Amendment: Prepare the tourism sector for the introduction and diffusion of HFC alternatives.



Type of policy

SLCP action plan



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