Supporting Eswatini’s NDC update

Eswatini submitted its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2016. Since 2019, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) and the NDC Partnership, through its Climate Action Enhancement Package, have assisted Eswatini to enhance their revised NDC with actions to reduce short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs).


The objectives of this project were to:

  • Improve the greenhouse gas inventory for the agriculture, forestry and land-use (AFOLU), waste, industrial processes (IPPU), and energy sectors  
  • Assess progress in the implementation of the current NDC and identify further measures that could be included in the updated NDC
  • Quantify the emissions reductions that can be achieved through implementation of the actions considered for Eswatini’s NDC update
  • Provide a set of indicators  to track progress on the implementation of the actions included in Eswatini’s NDC, including co-benefits, such as the reduction in air pollutant emissions


To achieve these objectives, the CCAC supported Eswatini through the following activities:

  • Development of a greenhouse gas mitigation assessment to inform the update of Eswatini’s NDC. The assessment used information from reports on the ruminant livestock, municipal solid waste, and Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU) sectors that included the methodology for updating the national greenhouse gas inventory, analysis of the historical emissions (1990-2018), Business-As-Usual (BAU) projections, and mitigation scenario analysis for the 2019-2030 period.
  • Capacity building for conducting an integrated assessment of greenhouse gases, air pollutants and SLCPs through a workshop for national stakeholders on the use of the LEAP-IBC tool. 
  • Preparation of a report presenting the results of the integrated assessment, complemented by recommendations for strengthening coordination and action.
  • Recommending progress indicators for Eswatini’s MRV framework and protocols for data collection and reporting. 

Local institutional capacity was strengthened through the recruitment of national expert to work alongside planners in the Ministry of Environment. Technical support was provided by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP).

Eswatini submitted its updated NDC in October 2021. 


Eswatini was lacking key information needed to inform its NDC update, including reliable and up-to-date greenhouse gas inventories and a review of existing mitigation and adaptation commitments.

Furthermore, Eswatini needed to streamline its multiple reporting processes, which include national communications and Biennial Update reports to the UNFCCC, national-level reporting on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as on international targets like the Sendai Framework, Convention on Biodiversity and the Convention on Desertification.