Reports, Case Studies & Assessments

Opportunities for Transition to Clean Household Energy – Ghana


In support of the implementation of the WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion (2014), WHO developed the Household Energy Assessment Rapid Tool (HEART) to identify relevant stakeholders, and map out a country’s policies and programmes on household energy and/or related health impacts. This report presents the results obtained with HEART in Ghana.

The report finds that the health sector could encourage adoption and sustained use of clean fuels and technologies for household energy in four areas:

1. Convening and coordination

  • Strengthen collaboration between the health and energy sectors.
  • Establish injury registries across the country to monitor burns associated with household energy use, including the fuels and technologies responsible.
  • Review current policies in all sectors, and make recommendations about household fuels and health.
  • Convene leaders in health and energy to promote a policy for clean household energy.

2. Assessment, monitoring and evaluation

  • Establish and support an interministerial working group to design a robust system for monitoring national household energy use and health.
  • Draw up scenarios for policy on household energy and conduct health impact assessments.
  • Assess capacity for surveillance of household energy-associated disease, injuries and incidents.
  • Identify a peri-urban clean fuel demonstration project to be evaluated.

3. Communication and education

  • Prepare campaigns and training in the health sector on the effects of household fuels on health.
  • Raise awareness about the effects of household fuels on health for Government leaders and staff.
  • Evaluate the impact of training and awareness raising.

4. Policy advocacy

  • Promote adoption of WHO standards for clean household energy.
  • Support the Presidential initiative on LPG.
  • In order to meet the national target for LPG use, make LPG cost-competitive with charcoal by introducing subsidies, especially around urban centres.
  • Modify the regulatory framework for LPG to allow smaller volume, lightweight cylinders that can be variably filled and are easily transportable.
  • Government willingness to improve access to LPG could offer an opportunity for multiple sectors to work together to improve safety through regulation and enforcement.
  • Promote use of renewable electricity in the upper east and upper west regions to decrease use of kerosene, and extend the national grid to replace candles and torches.
Pollutants (SLCPs)