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The Republic of Gabon, one of the most developed countries in Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change. The country’s coastlines, which are home to over 75% of the country’s population are at risk of flooding from sea-level rise, increased erosion, and increased storm severity. Climate change is also expected to put increasing pressure on the country’s water, agriculture, and public health sectors.
As one of the top five oil producers in Sub-Saharan Africa, Gabon has managed to grow its economy while maintaining a low greenhouse gas emission profile. Its vast forests, which the country actively maintains, play a major role as a "carbon sink," absorbing a total of 140 million tons of CO2 every year. Although Gabon contributes very little to climate change, the country is taking action to fight its impacts across sectors.
Gabon became a partner of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition in 2020, underlining its commitment to combat air pollution and climate change. They have ratified the Paris Agreement and the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
Gabon had communicated their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2015. In the INDCs, the government highlights its commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50% by 2025. It also underlines several sector-specific greenhouse gas reduction targets including 31% from the electricity generation, 16% from the waste sector and 8% from the transport sector.
The Republic of Gabon also joined the U.S and EU-led Global Methane Pledge, which was launched at COP26 in Glasgow in November 2021. Alongside 111 countries, Gabon pledged to drive action to support the collective global effort to reduce methane emissions by 30% by 2030, compared to the 2020 levels.
Gabon also has work underway regarding the measurements of vehicle emissions and actions to reduce the ozone-depleting substances. The country will work with CCAC to put in place a regulatory framework and national strategy on air quality, strengthen technical and institutional capacity, and mobilize the necessary resources to put these projects into action.
The Law 07/2014 on Environmental Protection implemented in 2014 includes measures related to multiple sectors including oil and gas, waste, and air quality. The law defines the principles and means of environmental protection in Gabon, such as the preservation and sustainable use of natural resources, pollution control, environmental education, and environmental information and monitoring. It also refers to air quality standards, emissions monitoring, inventorying of air pollutants, air monitoring as well as requirements related to waste reduction and reuse.
Gabon implemented the National Agricultural Mechanization Strategy (SNMAG) in 2018, highlighting the application of agricultural mechanization to various aspects of agriculture including the livestock sector, freshwater fish farming, soil preparation, crop weeding and harvest, crops pest and diseases control, irrigation, and drainage, and others. This framework aims to improve the productivity of its Agriculture to ensure the food security of the country. According to the strategy, the mechanization is done using clean and renewable energy sources, to align with the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal on clean and affordable energy. Using clean energy in agriculture sector will also help reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from the sector.