Reports, Case Studies & Assessments

Well under 2 degrees Celsius: Fast action policies to protect people and the planet from extreme climate changes


Staying at under 2°C will require a concerted global effort. We must address everything from our energy systems to our personal choices to reduce emissions to the greatest extent possible. 

This report sets out that, for the global economy and society to achieve such rapid reductions of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) by 2030 and carbon neutrality and climate stability by 2050, we will need multi-dimensional and multi-sectoral changes and modifications.

Science Solutions

1. Show that we can bend the warming curve immediately by reducing SLCPs, and long-term by replacing current fossil fuel energy systems with carbon neutral technologies.

Societal Transformation Solutions

2. Foster a global culture of climate action through coordinated public communication and education at local to global scales.

3. Build an alliance between science, religion, health care, and policy to change behavior and garner public support for drastic mitigation actions.

Governance Solutions

4. Build upon and strengthen the Paris Agreement. Strengthen sister agreements like the Montreal Protocol’s Kigali Amendment to reduce HFCs.

5. Scale up subnational models of governance and collaboration around the world to embolden and energize national and international action. California’s Under 2 MOU and climate action plans by over 50 cities are prime examples.

Market- and Regulations-Based Solutions

6. Adopt market-based instruments to create efficient incentives for businesses and individuals to reduce CO2 emissions.

7. Target direct regulatory measures—such as rebates and efficiency and renewable energy portfolio standards—for high emissions sectors not covered by market-based policies.

Technology-Based Solutions

8. Promote immediate widespread use of mature technologies such as photovoltaics, wind turbines, biogas, geothermal, batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, electric light-duty vehicles, and more efficient end-use devices, especially in lighting, air conditioning and other appliances, and industrial processes. Aggressively support and promote innovations to accelerate the complete electrification of energy and transportation systems and improve building efficiency.

9. Immediately make maximum use of available technologies combined with regulations to reduce methane emissions by 50%, reduce black carbon emissions by 90%, and eliminate high-GWP HFCs ahead of the schedule in the Kigali Amendment.

Atmospheric Carbon Extraction Solutions

10. Regenerate damaged natural ecosystems and restore soil organic carbon.; Expand with urgency research and development of approaches and measures for direct extraction of CO2. 

The solutions are adapted from the report: Bending the Curve written by fifty researchers from the University of California system. These solutions, which often overlap, were in turn distilled from numerous publications and reports.