Climate Accounting Measurement and Analysis (CLIAMA)

A greater understanding of the brick sector’s pollution and climate impacts is needed in order to address black carbon and other short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) emissions.

The Coalition’s Climate Accounting Measurement and Analsysis (CLIAMA) activity aims to provide clarity on the spectrum of emissions from the brick sector so that countries have access to reliable metrics for measuring the effectiveness of reduction measures.


The sector’s air emissions are poorly characterized but may include sulfur oxides, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, forms of particulate matter including black carbon, and additional compounds released by the burning of coal and other fuels. Emissions vary by kiln type and fuel burned, which makes it difficult to derive representative averages for the artisanal brick sector as a whole. Investigators typically cannot rely on official data to estimate the number of kilns operating in specific areas; given their informal status, kiln operators do not register with local municipalities.

Public policy, regulations and mitigation actions require the identification of a black carbon baseline that will be used to determine the percentage of reduction of emissions after the technological conversions have been completed.


CLIAMA was created to develop a standardized protocol for climate relevant measurements from brick kilns. It draws on work already undertaken in the Coalition’s Brick Production Initiative and existing brick kiln measurement experience.

CLIAMA sets out to:

  • Assess existing black carbon data
  • Review existing measurement protocols and instruments
  • Forge a common understanding of climate-relevant measurements, with an emphasis on black carbon and countries / regions measurements are weak

What we're doing

  • Developing a method and equipment for measuring climate  relevant brick kiln emissions
  • Demonstrating a method on wide range of kiln types
  • Building capacity for ongoing measurements in South Asia and South America 
  • Building emission inventories for brick kilns
  • Understanding kiln emission patterns and causal factors
  • Evaluating effectiveness of improved kiln technologies

The sum of these efforts is providing guidance on how to calculate SLCP climate impacts and co-benefits, including health, from brick kiln upgrades and/or changes in brick kiln practices. These efforts are also supporting the development and distribution of SLCP measurement equipment for use in quality-controlled field measurements.  

Once complete, the work in South Asia and South America will be used to identify potential for application in other regions.